Journal: American Journal of Botany
Volume: 97
Pages: 1961-1981


Premise of the study: The Condamineeae have in previous molecular studies been shown to be part of an early-divergent clade within the subfamily Ixoroideae, together with the tribes Calycophylleae, and Hippotideae, and genera of the former Cinchoneae and Rondeletieae. Generic relationships within this clade have, however, remained largely unresolved.

Methods: In this study, the systematics of the Condamineeae was further examined by phylogenetic reconstruction of six cp- DNA regions and one nrDNA region using parsimony and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference. Morphological character evolution within the tribe was assessed by ancestral state reconstruction using likelihood optimization of characters onto Bayesian trees.

Key results: Calycophylleae appears polyphyletic. “Hippotideae” is monophyletic but nested within the Condamineeae. The phylogenetic hypotheses presented support a resurrection of the genera Holtonia, Schizocalyx, and Semaphyllanthe. Furthermore, Bathysa is found to be polyphyletic, Tresanthera is found nested within Rustia, and the taxonomically disputed genus Dialypetalanthus is here shown to be sister to a BothriosporaWittmackanthus clade. Morphological ancestral state reconstructions indicate that protogyny have evolved at least two times within the tribe and that indehiscent fruits, loculicidal fruit dehiscence, and intrapetiolar stipules have evolved independently several times. The occurrence of calycophylls (leaf-like calyx lobes), poricidal anthers, and winged seeds also appear homoplastic within the tribe.

Conclusions: A diagnosis and delimitation of the tribe Condamineeae is presented, with taxonomic proposals to synonymize Tresanthera and to transfer several species of Bathysa as well as Phitopis to a resurrected Schizocalyx.