Journal: Taxon
Volume: 54
Pages: 411-425


A phylogenetic study of plastid DNA sequences (ndhF, trnL/F, and rps16) in Lamiales is presented. In particular, the inclusiveness of Scrophulariaceae sensu APG II is elaborated. Scrophulariaceae in this sense are mainly a southern hemisphere group, which includes Hemimerideae (including Alonsoa, with a few South American species), Myoporeae, the Central American Leucophylleae (including Capraria), Androya, Aptosimeae, Buddlejeae, Teedieae (including Oftia, Dermatobotrys, and Freylinia), Manuleeae, and chiefly Northern temperate Scrophularieae (including Verbascum and Oreosolen). Camptoloma and Phygelius group with Buddlejeae and Teedieae, but without being well resolved to any of these two groups. Antherothamnus is strongly supported as sister taxon to Scrophularieae. African Stilbaceae are shown to include Bowkerieae and Charadrophila. There is moderate support for a clade of putative Asian origin and including Phrymaceae, Paulownia, Rehmannia, Mazus, Lancea, and chiefly parasitic Orobanchaceae, to which Brandisia is shown to belong. A novel, strongly supported, clade of taxa earlier assigned to Scrophulariaceae was found. The clade includes Stemodiopsis, Torenia, Micranthemum and probably Picria and has unclear relationships to the rest of Lamiales. This clade possibly represents the tribe Lindernieae, diagnosed by geniculate anterior filaments, usually with a basal swelling.